Vần M

Thảo luận trong 'Vần M-N-O' bắt đầu bởi cayman, 4/9/06.

  1. cayman

    cayman Banned Thành viên BQT Hội viên mới

    Accounting Dictionary – 48 - MAR

    MACRS is Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System.

    MAINTENANCE is the activity involved in maintaining something in good working order. May include replacement of signifcant portions of the item(s) being maintained.

    MALPRACTICE INSURANCE see E&O INSURANCE.

    MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING is the process of identification, measurement, accumulation, analysis, preparation, interpretation, and communication of financial information used by management to plan, evaluate, and control within an organization and to assure appropriate use of and accountability for its resources. Management accounting also comprises the preparation of financial reports for non-management groups such as shareholders, creditors, regulatory agencies, and tax authorities.

    MANAGERIAL ACCOUNTING is a system using financial accounting records as basic data to enable better business decisions in the areas of planning and control.

    MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES (MBO) is a management theory that calls for managing people based on documented work statements mutually agreed to by manager and subordinate. Progress on these work statements is periodically reviewed, and in a proper implementation, compensation is usually tied to MBO performance.

    MANAGEMENT CONTROL SYSTEM is essentially a strategic tool for holding managers accountable and responsible for their performance. Existence of such a system also provides feedback for managers to know how they perform, in which direction the organization is heading, and what type of course correction may be required to stay on course.

    MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM (MIS) is a well-developed data management system that provides uniform organizational information from all areas of the entity within a database. Information within the database is manipulated to help management reach accurate and rapid organizational decisions.

    MANAGEMENT LETTER identifies issues not required to be disclosed in the Annual Financial Report but represent the auditor's concerns and suggestions noted during the audit.

    MANDATORY TRANSFERS are transfers from the current (operating) fund group to other fund groups arising out of binding legal agreements related to the financing, e.g., in education: debt retirement, interest, and grant agreements with federal agencies and other organizations to match gifts and grants. Whereas non-mandatory transfers would be transfers from the current (operating) fund group to other fund groups made at the discretion of management to serve various objectives, e.g., additions to loan funds, endowment funds, plant additions, and voluntary renewal and replacement of plant.

    MANUAL TAG SYSTEM is a inventory tracking system used in inventory management that tracks inventory using tags removed at the point of purchase.

    MANUFACTURING ACCOUNT is an accounting statement that is an integral part of the final accounts of a manufacturing organization. For any particular period, it indicates, among other things, prime cost of manufacturing, manufacturing overhead, the total manufacturing cost, and the manufacturing costs of finished goods.

    MANUFACTURING CONCERN is an entity that derives its products for sale, thereby revenue, through the direct manufacture of those products.

    MANUFACTURING STATEMENT see MANUFACTURING ACCOUNT.

    MAP can mean Manufacturing Application Protocol, Merchant Account Provider, Minimum Advertised Price, or Major Accounts Processing among many others.

    MARGIN see GROSS MARGIN.

    MARGIN (Stocks) allows investors to buy securities/assets by borrowing money from a broker/banker. The margin is the difference between the market value of a stock/asset and the loan a broker/banker makes.

    MARGIN ACCOUNT (Stocks) is a leverageable account in which stocks can be purchased for a combination of cash and a loan. The loan in the margin account is collateralized by the stock and, if the value of the stock drops sufficiently, the owner will be asked to either put in more cash, or sell a portion of the stock. Margin rules are federally regulated, but margin requirements and interest may vary among broker/dealers.

    MARGINAL COST is a calculation showing the change in total cost as a result of a change in volume, e.g. if one more item of output increases the total cost by $25, the marginal cost is $25. It is usually useful to determine marginal cost because it can aid in determining if the rate of production should be altered.

    MARGINAL REVENUE is the change in total revenue as a result of producing one additional unit of output.

    MARGINAL TAX RATE is the top rate of income tax that is charged to individuals on their earnings.

    MARGIN CALL (Stocks) is a demand for additional funds because of adverse price movement is a stock.

    MARINE INSURANCE is insurance coverage protecting against loss or damage of goods transported by sea.

    MARK ENDORSEMENT, normally, it is when a signatory (payee) cannot endorse with their signature, due to illiteracy or an infirmary, the signatory is allowed to make a mark that identifies that the signatory has signed. Such mark endorsements are normally witnessed with the witness endorsing the mark endorsement.

    MARKETABLE SECURITY is a readily tradable equity or debt security with quoted prices; to include commercial paper and Treasury bills. It is a "close to cash" asset which is classified as a current asset.
     

  2. cayman

    cayman Banned Thành viên BQT Hội viên mới

    Accounting Dictionary – 49 - MER

    MARKET CAPITALIZATION is the total dollar value of all outstanding shares. It is calculated by multiplying the number of shares times the current market price. The term is commonly referred to as “market cap”.

    MARKET DISCOUNT is the stated redemption price of a bond at maturity minus your basis in the bond immediately after you acquire it. Market discount arises when the value of a debt obligation decreases after it's issue date.

    MARKET DISCOUNT BOND is any bond having market discount except: short-term obligations with fixed maturity dates of up to 1 year from the date of issue, tax-exempt obligations that you bought before May 1, 1993, U.S. savings bonds, and certain installment obligations

    MARKETING LEVER is anything that provides positional advantage or power to act effectively: Potential levers may be price, brand name, corporate image, broad distribution, effective advertising, etc.

    MARKET MULTIPLE see PRICE/EARNINGS RATIO.

    MARKET POSITION, from a marketing context, is the strength of an entity or product within the target market. In investing, it is the amount and/or depth and breadth of holdings within identified sectors of the capital market.

    MARKET TO BOOK VALUE is calculated by dividing the market value (MV) of a company, i.e., the total value of all its outstanding shares, by the value of its tangible assets (TA). Also known as TOBIN RATIO = MV/TA.

    MARKET VALUE, in general, is the price at which buyers and sellers trade similar items in an open marketplace. In the absence of a market price, it is the estimated highest price a buyer would be warranted in paying and a seller justified in accepting, provided both parties were fully informed and acted intelligently and voluntarily. See also OPEN MARKET VALUE (OMV).

    MARKUP is the amount added to the cost of goods in order to produce the desired profit.

    MATCHING, in accounting, is the matching of invoices to purchase orders and delivery notes prior to payment.

    MATCHING CONCEPT is the accounting principle that requires the recognition of all costs that are directly associated with the realization of the revenue reported within the income statement.

    MATCHING PRINCIPLE see MATCHING CONCEPT.

    MATERIALITY is the importance of information or an event that influences a company's price of stock.

    MATERIALITY PRINICIPLE requires accountants to use generally accepted accounting principles except when to do so would be expensive or difficult, and where it makes no real difference if the rules are ignored. If a rule is temporarily ignored, the net income of the company must not be significantly affected, nor should the reader's ability to judge the financial statements be impaired.

    MATERIALS are physical goods (and their cost) used in the manufacture of a product, often separated into DIRECT MATERIAL (that which goes directly into the product such as cream into ice cream, or steel into cars) and INDIRECT MATERIAL (that which is used in maintaining the manufacturing environment such as cleaning fluids or oil for lubrication of manufacturing equipment). Indirect materials are usually part of the overhead component of cost. The term material, when used without the direct or indirect qualifier, usually refers to direct materials.

    MATERIAL WEAKNESS is a condition that could potentially result in the material misstatement of the financial statements.

    MATRIX ORGANIZATION is where a company superimposes a group or interdisciplinary team of project specialists on a functional organizational design. In a matrix organization the members have dual allegiances, i.e., to that particular assignment or project as well as their normal organizational department.

    MBO see MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES.

    MD&A is an acronym for Management Discussion and Analysis. MD&A usually refers to that section of a corporate annual or quarterly report that provides managerial comment on corporate performance for the time period in question.

    MEAN is the measure of central tendency; also called the 'average'. It is calculated by the sum of the data points divided by the number of data points.

    MEASUREMENT THEORY involves the assignment of numerals to objects or events in order to represent certain attributes, or properties, of those objects and events.

    MEDIAN is the value of the midpoint variable when the data are arranged in ascending or descending order.

    MEDIA PLAN, in advertising, is the plan that details the usage of media in an advertising campaign including costs, running dates, markets, reach, frequency, rationales, and strategies.

    MEDIUM TERM ASSETS, usually, are those assets that are expected of having a useful life of between six months and two years of the present.

    MER (Management Expense Ratio) is the percentage of the assets that were spent to run a mutual fund. It includes things like management and advisory fees, travel costs and 12b-1 fees. The expense ratio does not include brokerage costs for trading the portfolio. Also referred to as the Expense Ratio.
     
  3. cayman

    cayman Banned Thành viên BQT Hội viên mới

    Accounting Dictionary – 50 – MUT

    MERGER is the union of two or more commercial interests or corporations. The distinction being that identity of the merged companies, product lines, etc., may or may not lose its individual identity.

    MEZZANINE FINANCING usually is a class of investment that is a stage intermediate between venture capital and an initial public offering; or, subordinated debt used in leveraged buyouts (LBOs).

    MID-CAP is a stock with a capitalization, total equity value, between $500 million and $5 billion.

    MIDDLE MARKET COMPANY: see MID-CAP.

    MILLAGE is a rate (as of taxation) expressed in mills per dollar.

    MINIMUM WAGE is the lowest compensation you are allowed to pay an employee for hourly work. It is defined by Federal, state, and sometimes local laws. State or local laws may be more restrictive than Federal law, and certainly may differ.

    MINORITY INTEREST is the interest or percentage ownership of a group of stockholders who, in total, own less than 50% of the shares in the corporation.

    MINOR MATTERS is a term used in accounting and legal reports to cover areas considered to be cosmetic or superficial; thereby deemed by the author to be of little consequence.

    MIS see MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM.

    MISCELLANEOUS INCOME is that income realized that is not directly related to the sale of standard products and services.

    MODIFIED ACCELERATED COST RECOVERY SYSTEM (MACRS) is a system used in accounting to define the rate and method under which a fixed asset will be depreciated for tax purposes.

    MODIFIED ACCRUAL BASIS accounting is a mixture of the cash and accrual basis. The modified accrual basis should be used for governmental funds. To be recognized as a revenue or expenditure, the actual receipt or disbursal of cash must occur soon enough after a transaction or event has occurred to have an impact on current spendable resources. In other words, revenues must be both measurable and available to pay for the current period's liabilities. Revenues are considered available when collectible either during the current period or after the end of the current period but in time to pay year-end liabilities. Expenditures are recognized when a transaction or event is expected to draw upon current spendable resources rather than future resources.

    MONETARY is anything pertaining to or having to do with money, money creation, money supply, and the government management of money.

    MONEY MEASUREMENT CONCEPT stipulates that all business transactions must be expressed in money terms, i.e., if something cannot be measured in money; it will not be included in accounting books.

    MONEY MEASUREMENT PRINCIPLE see MONEY MEASUREMENT CONCEPT.

    MONETARY UNIT is the unit used to measure economic activity (e.g., U.S. $).

    MORTGAGE is a conditional conveyance of property as security for the repayment of a loan.

    MORTGAGE BOND is a bond in which the issuer has granted the bondholders a lien against the pledged assets.

    MOU is Memorandum of Understanding.

    MUD is Multi Unit Discount.

    MULTIPLE same as Price/Earnings Ratio.

    MULTIPLIER is a. the investment multiplier which quantifies the overall effects of investment spending on total income; or, b. the deposit multiplier which shows the effects of a change in bank deposits on the total amount of outstanding credit and the money supply.

    MUTUAL AGENCY is the right of all partners in a partnership to act as agents for the normal business operations of the partnership, with the authority to bind it to business agreements.
     
  4. LiamsmithEz

    LiamsmithEz New Member Hội viên mới

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